The Foundation for Child Development’s Young Scholars Program (YSP) continues its tradition of developing the next generation of researchers whose scholarship has the potential to improve children’s well-being and make a positive impact on policy and practice. The Foundation believes that a deeper understanding of the role of Early Care and Education (ECE) professionals in enhancing young children’s early learning experiences can ultimately improve the chances for all children to reach their full potential. Currently, YSP supports implementation research that is policy and practice-relevant and that examines the preparation, competency, compensation, well-being, and on-going professional learning of the ECE workforce. Previously, the focus of YSP concentrated on the learning and development needs of children within immigrant families (YSP Cohorts 1-12).
The Foundation is proud to support the research of all the Young Scholars. To learn more about their important work, please see the below profiles of previous and current Young Scholars.
2018 Young Scholars (Cohort 15)
R. Gabriela Barajas-Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Population Health
New York University School of Medicine
Project Title: Navigating Uncertainty: Understanding the Impact of Immigration-Related Stressors on the Well-being and Work of Pre-K-3rd Grade Teachers and Social Workers Working with Immigrant Families
Jennifer Wallace Jacoby, Ed.D.
Class of 1929 Dr. Virginia Apgar Assistant Professor of Education
Mount Holyoke College
Project Title: The Other Teachers in the Room: Foregrounding the Roles and Contributions of Assistant Teachers in Early Childhood Classrooms
Kelly Purtell, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Human Sciences
The Ohio State University
Project Title: The Role of Center Directors in Producing High Quality Preschool Experiences for Young Children
2017 Young Scholars (Cohort 14)
Anna Johnson, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology
Project Title: Understanding Publicly Funded Early Care and Education Workforce Supports and Well-being: Implications for Vulnerable Children’s School Readiness
Michelle Maier, Ph.D.
Project Title: What Matters Most for Teachers and Young Children? An Examination of Teacher Practices, Child Outcomes, and Teacher Professional Development in Low-income Preschool Programs
Jaime Puccioni, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Literacy Teaching & Learning
University at Albany, State University of New York
Project Title: Estimating the Differential Impact of Preschool Teachers’ Outreach Efforts on Measures of School Readiness for Children from Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds: The Mediating Role of Parental Involvement
2016 Young Scholars (Cohort 13)
North Cooc, Ed.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Special Education
The University of Texas at Austin
Project Title: The Role of Early Childhood Teacher Qualifications and Kindergarten Transition Practices in the Developmental Trajectories of Young Children with Disabilities
Michael Gottfried, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Gevirtz Graduate School of Education
University of California, Santa Barbara
Project Title: The Role of Full-Day Kindergarten for Children with Disabilities: Effects on Achievement and Socioemotional Development
Gottfried, M.A. (2017). Does Absenteeism Differ for Children with Disabilities in Full-Day versus Part-Day Kindergarten? Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 22, 260-281.
Abstract: Almost no research has examined full-day versus part-day kindergarten for children with disabilities, and nothing is known about how these settings link to differences in children’s school absences. This is concerning, given that children with disabilities have higher absence rates compared to children in the general population. To address this gap, this study examined a national dataset of kindergartners and inquired into whether going to full- versus part-day kindergarten predicted differences in absences. Children with disabilities in full-day kindergarten had more total school absences as well as a higher chance of being chronically absent compared to those children in part-day kindergarten. However, the size of this association was reduced for children in lower-SES families and for boys. There were no differences in kindergarten type by disability category. Policy implications are discussed in terms of how early educational settings can be most supportive, and for whom.
Gottfried, M.A., & Ansari, A. (in press). Raising the Bar: Teaching Kindergartners with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities and Teachers’ Readiness Expectations. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.
Gottfried, M.A. (in press). Are Today’s Students with Disabilities More Likely to Attend Full-Day Kindergarten or Part-Day Kindergarten? Analysis of Two Cohorts of Students and Their Teachers. Exceptional Children.
Gottfried, M.A., & Sublett, C. (in press). Older Versus Younger: The Role of Kindergarten Entry Age for Students who Begin Kindergarten with Disabilities. Teachers College Record.
Gottfried, M.A. (2018). Teacher’s Aides in Kindergarten: Effects on Achievement for Students with Disabilities. The Journal of Educational Research, 5, 620-630.
Gottfried, M.A., & Little, M. (2018). Full- Versus Part-Day Kindergarten for Children with Disabilities: Effects on Executive Function Skills. Early Education and Development, 29, 288-305.
Carola Oliva-Olson, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Early Childhood Studies
California State University, Channel Islands
Project Title: Early Childhood Classroom Quality Assessment for Dual Language Learners: Implications for Improving Teaching Practices
Holly Schindler, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, College of Education
University of Washington
Project Title: Filming Interactions to Nurture Development: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Strength-Based Video-Coaching Program for Mexican American Fathers
2014 Young Scholars (Cohort 12)
Justin Denney, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Sociology
Washington State University
Project Title: Food Insecurity in Neighborhood Context: Investigating Disparities Among a Racially Diverse Sample of Young Children
Denney, J.T., Kimbro, R.T., & Sharp, G. (2018). Neighborhoods and Food Insecurity in Households with Young Children: A Disadvantage Paradox? Social Problems, 65(3), 342 – 359.
Abstract: In the United States, more than 1 in 5 households with children are unable to access and provide adequate food for a healthy, active lifestyle. We argue that the contribution of local context for food insecurity risk has largely been overlooked in favor of focusing on individual family characteristics, and that this is problematic given that mitigating food insecurity may be a communal process. We examine the relevance of neighborhood contributors to food insecurity among children, utilizing geocoded and nationally-representative data from the ECLS-K: 2010-2011 kindergarten cohort. We find little evidence that neighborhood socioeconomic, food retail, or social services characteristics directly impact food insecurity risk. However, our results reveal that family and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics combine to impact food insecurity in ways consistent with a disadvantage paradox. As neighborhood concentrated disadvantage increases, higher-SES families’ risk of food insecurity increases, but lower-SES families’ risk decreases. This paradox is not explained by a higher concentration of social service organizations in more disadvantaged neighborhoods, and we theorize that impoverished families with children may share information and resources in disadvantaged communities to avoid food insecurity. Close.
Kevin Gee, Ed.D.
Associate Professor, School of Education
University of California, Davis
Project Title: The Impact of Food Security Status on Children’s Developmental Outcomes: Examining Differences Across Diverse Racial/Ethnic and Income Groups
Gee, K. A. (2017). Growing Up with A Food Insecure Adult: The Cognitive Consequences of Recurrent Versus Transitory Food Insecurity Across the Early Elementary Years. Journal of Family Issues. 39(8): 2437-2460.
Abstract: To investigate how kindergarteners cognitively developed in a family with an adult who experienced recurrent versus transitory food insecurity, a sample of 1,040 kindergarteners (mean age = 5.6 years) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 was analyzed using multilevel growth modeling. Results indicated that kindergarteners from homes with an adult who experienced recurrent food insecurity (twice within a 24-month period; n = 490) initially had slower growth in reading relative to their counterparts who were in homes with an adult who was food insecure only once over the same time period (n = 550). However, this initial disadvantage diminished over time. As a result, the recurrent group’s reading trajectory converged with that of their transitory peers by second grade. These findings highlight the value of adopting more temporal view of food insecurity and its developmental consequences.
Gee, K. A. & Asim, M. (2019). Parenting While Food Insecure: Links between Adult Food Insecurity, Parenting Aggravation and Children’s Behaviors. Journal of Family Issues. In press.
Ramón A. Martínez, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, School of Education
Project Title: Exploring and Expanding Multilingual Students’ Linguistic Repertoires
Martínez, R. A., Durán, L., & Hikida, M. (2017). Becoming “Spanish learners”: Identity and interaction among multilingual children in a Spanish-English dual language program. International Multilingual Research Journal, 11(3), 167-183.
Abstract: This article explores the interactional co-construction of identities among two first grade students who were learning Spanish as a third language in a Spanish-English dual language classroom. Drawing on ethnographic and interactional data from a larger study of language and ideology in a dual language elementary school program, the article focuses on a single interaction between these two “Spanish learners” and two of their Spanish-speaking classmates that took place within the context of a classroom read-aloud. Analysis was informed by what Erickson (2004) calls the ethnographic microanalysis of social interaction — the combination of ethnographic observation and a close analysis of the details of talk. Building on a framework articulated by Bucholtz and Hall (2005), special attention was devoted not only to closely examining the sequential organization of talk, but also to identifying the particular linguistic resources that speakers recruited in their conversational turns and how these functioned to index particular identities. Findings showcase the interactional mechanisms by which these students’ identities were variously asserted, contested, and negotiated in everyday classroom talk. The paper ends by offering implications and raising further questions with respect to the implementation of dual language education for multilingual students.
Martínez, R. A., Durán, L., & Hikida, M. (Forthcoming, 2019). Where translanguaging meets academic writing: Exploring tensions and generative connections for bilingual Latina/o/x students. In I. G. Sánchez & M. F. Orellana (Eds.), Everyday learning: Leveraging non-dominant youth language and culture in schools. New York: Routledge.
Martínez, R. A. & Martinez, D. C. (Forthcoming, 2019). Chicanx and Latinx students’ linguistic repertoires: Moving beyond essentialist and prescriptivist perspectives. In J. MacSwan & C. Faltis (Eds.), Critical perspectives on codeswitching in classroom settings: Language practices for multilingual teaching and learning. New York: Routledge.
Martínez, R. M., Hikida, M., & Durán, L. (2019). Translanguaging and the transformation of classroom space: On the affordances of disrupting linguistic boundaries. In M. Pacheco & P. Z. Morales (Eds.), Transforming schooling for second language learners: Policies, pedagogies, and practices (pp. 181-198). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Hikida, M. & Martínez, R. A. (2019). Languaging, race, and (dis)ability: Discerning structure and agency in classroom interaction. In R. Beach and D. Bloome (Eds.), Languaging relations across social worlds: Retheorizing the teaching and learning of literacy and the language arts (pp. 69-90). New York: Routledge.
Martínez, R. A. (2018).Beyond the “English learner” label: Recognizing the richness of bi/multilingual children’s linguistic repertoires. The Reading Teacher, 71(5), 515-522.
Martínez, R. A. (2018). Intersectionality and possibility in the lives of Latina/o/x children of immigrants: Imagining pedagogies beyond the politics of hate. Bank Street College of Education Occasional Paper Series, 2018 (39).
Martínez, R. A., Durán, L., & Hikida, M. (2017). Becoming “Spanish learners”: Identity and interaction among multilingual children in a Spanish-English dual language program. International Multilingual Research Journal, 11(3), 167-183.
Martínez, R. A. (2017). Dual language education and the erasure of Chicanx, Latinx, and indigenous Mexican children: A call to re-imagine (and imagine beyond) bilingualism. Texas Education Review, 5(1), 81-92.
Durán, L., Hikida, M. & Martínez, R. A.(2017). Beyond bilingual: Including multilingual students in dual language programs. Rethinking Bilingual Education(pp. 186-192). Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools.
Martínez, R. A., Hikida, M., & Durán, L. (2015). Unpacking ideologies of linguistic purism: How dual language teachers make sense of everyday translanguaging. International Multilingual Research Journal, 9(1), 26-42. Close.
Kristine M. Molina, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Psychology
The University of Illinois at Chicago
Project Title: The Effects of Discrimination on Social, Academic, and Mental Health Outcomes of Puerto Rican Children: An Inter-Generational and Multi-Wave Study
Kristin Turney, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology
University of California, Irvine
Project Title: The Developmental Trajectories of Children with Incarcerated Fathers: The Role of Families, Schools, and Neighborhoods
Turney, K. (2017). The unequal consequences of mass incarceration for children. Demography, 54, 361-389.
Abstract: A growing literature has documented the mostly deleterious intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration, but less research has considered heterogeneity in these relationships. In this article, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,065) to estimate the heterogeneous relationship between paternal incarceration and children’s problem behaviors (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and early juvenile delinquency) and cognitive skills (reading comprehension, math comprehension, and verbal ability) in middle childhood. Taking into account children’s risk of experiencing paternal incarceration, measured by the social contexts in which children are embedded (e.g., father’s residential status, poverty, neighborhood disadvantage) reveals that the consequences-across all outcomes except early juvenile delinquency-are more deleterious for children with relatively low risks of exposure to paternal incarceration than for children with relatively high risks of exposure to paternal incarceration. These findings suggest that the intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration are more complicated than documented in previous research and, more generally, suggest that research on family inequality consider both differential selection into treatments and differential responses to treatments.
Haskins, A. & Turney, K. (2017). “The Demographic Landscape and Sociological Implications of Parental Incarceration for Childhood Inequality.” Pp. 9 – 28 in C. Wildeman, A. Haskins, and J. Poehlmann-Tynan (Eds.), When Parents are Incarcerated: Interdisciplinary Research and Interventions to Support Children. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.
Turney, K. (2017). Unmet Health Care Needs among Children Exposed to Parental Incarceration. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21, 1194 – 1202.
Turney, K. & Adams, B. L. (2016). “Considering Risk and Resiliency among Children of Incarcerated Parents.” Pp. 41-51 in Boys and Men in African American Families, edited by L. M. Burton, D. Burton, S. M. McHale, V. King, and J. Van Hook. Boys and Men in African American Families. New York: Springer.
2013 Young Scholars (Cohort 11)
Cecilia Ayón, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Public Policy
University of California, Riverside
Project Title: ¿Tú de Donde Eres?: Latino Immigrant Families’ Efforts to Resist Discrimination
Ayón, C. (2016). Talking to children about race, inequality, and discrimination: Raising families in an anti-immigrant political environment. Journal of the Society for Social Work Research, 7(3), 449-477.
Abstract: The passage of several anti-immigrant policies has been linked to heightened levels of discrimination for the Latino immigrant community. Many children are likely to be affected, considering that 10 million children in the United States are children of Latino immigrants. Informed by the ecodevelopmental framework, this study examines parent-child interactions concerning race, inequality, and discrimination. Method: This study uses in-depth qualitative interviews with Latino immigrant parents (N = 54), a majority of them women (79.6%, SD = 6.47) with on average 3 children (SD = 1.42). Constructivist grounded theory methods are used to complete the analysis. A constant comparative approach is used while completing initial, focused, and axial coding. Multiple steps are taken to support the trustworthiness of the study. Results: Findings indicate that parents use a range of messages to support their children as they are faced with issues of race, inequality, and discrimination. Parents (a) comfort their children to ensure their safety; (b) educate their children about nativity and documentation status; c) encourage children to adapt and expect discrimination; (d) reinforce negative stereotypes; (e) model advocacy and advise children to advocate for their themselves and others; (f) build children’s ethnic pride; and (g) talk to their children about the value of diversity and empathy. Consistent with the ecodevelopmental framework, Latino parents play a critical role in children’s understanding and processing of their experiences with discrimination. Implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed.
Ayón, C., Tran, A.G.T.T., & Nieri, T. (2019). Ethnic racial socialization practices among Latino immigrant parents: A latent profile analysis. Family Relations, 68, 246-259.
Ayón, C. & Garcia, S.J. (2019). Latino Immigrant Parents Experiences with Discrimination: Implications for Parenting in a Hostile Immigration Policy Context. Journal of Family Issues, 40(6) 805 – 831. DOI: 10.1177/0192513X19827988
Ayón, C. (2018). Latino Immigrant Family Socialization (LIFS) scale: Development and validation of a multi-dimensional ethnic-racial socialization measurement. Social Work, 63(3), 222-233. doi: 10.1093/sw/swy016.
Ayón, C., Messing, J.T., Gurrola, M., & Valencia-Garcia, D. (2018). The oppression of Latina mothers: Experiences of exploitation, violence, marginalization, cultural imperialism and powerlessness in their everyday lives. Violence Against Women, 24(8) 879 -900.
Ayón, C. & Ojeda, I., & Ruano, E. (2018). Para que no se olviden de donde vienen: Cultural Socialization Practices Among Latino Immigrant Families within a Restrictive Immigration Socio-Political Context. Children and Youth Services Review, 88, 57-65.
Ayón, C., Wagaman, M.A., & Philbin, S.P. (2018). No te dejes pisotear por nadien: Examining Latino immigrants’ efforts to resist discrimination. Journal of Social Service Research, 44(1), 78-95.
Ayón, C. (2017a). Vivimos en jaula de oro: The impact of state level legislation on immigrant Latino families. Journal of Immigration and Refugee Studies, 16(4), 351-371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2017.1306151
Ayón, C., Valencia-Garcia, D., & Kim, S.H. (2017). Latino immigrant families and restrictive immigration climate: Perceived experiences with discrimination, threat to family, social exclusion, children’s vulnerability and related factors. Race and Social Problems, 9(4), 300-312.
Ayón, C. & Philbin, S.P. (2017). Tú no eres de aquí: Latino Children’s experiences of institutional and interpersonal discrimination, and microaggressions. Social Work Research, 41(1), 19-30.
Williams, J.H. (2017). Supporting Quality Research across the Profession, Social Work Research. https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/svx021
Valencia-Garcia, D., Bi, X., & Ayón, C. (2017). Sensitivity and specificity in three commonly used depression measures: Results from a Latina sample. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 19, 562-571. doi:10.1007/s10903-016-0512-1
Ayón C. (2017b). Perceived Immigration Policy Effects Scale: Development and validation of a scale on the impact of state-level immigration policies on Latino immigrant families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 39(1), 19-33.
Philbin, S.P. & Ayón, C. (2016). Luchamos por nuestros hijos: Latino immigrant parents strive to protect their children from the deleterious effects of anti-immigration policies. Children and Youth Services Review, 63, 123-135. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.02.019
Rubio-Hernandez, S.P. & Ayón, C. (2016). Pobrecitos los Niños: The emotional impact of anti-immigration policies on Latino youth. Children and Youths Services Review, 60, 20-26. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.11.013 Close.
Kalina Brabeck, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Counseling, Educational Leadership, and School Psychology
Rhode Island College
Project Title: An Exploratory Study of the Experiences of US-Born Children in Latino Immigrant Families
Brabeck, K.M., Sibley, E., Taubin, P. & Murcia, A. (2015). The influence of immigrant parent legal status on U.S.-born children’s academic abilities: The moderating effects of social service use. Applied Developmental Science, 20(4), 237-249.
Abstract: The present study investigated the relationship between immigrant parent legal status and academic performance among U.S.-born children, ages 7 – 10. Building on previous research and a social ecological framework, the study further explored how social service use moderates the relationship between parent legal status and academic performance. Participants included 178 low-income, urban parent/child dyads; all parents were immigrants from Mexico, Central America, or the Dominican Republic and all children were U.S.-born citizens. Using a standardized academic assessment as the outcome, parent legal vulnerability was a significant negative predictor of children’s academic performance on reading, spelling, and math subtests. Additionally, parent use of social services significantly and positively moderated the relationship between parent legal vulnerability and children’s word reading and spelling skills, indicating that social service use can serve as a protective buffer against the negative associations between parental unauthorized status and child achievement.
Brabeck, K.M. & Sibley, E. (2016). Immigrant parent legal status, parent-child relationships, and child social emotional wellbeing: A middle childhood perspective. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 25(4), 1155-1167.
Brabeck, K.M., Sibley, E. & Lykes, M.B. (2015). Situating immigrant parents’ legal vulnerability within family contexts: The importance of exosystem factors for understanding immigrant families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 38(1), 3-30. Close.
Catherine DeCarlo Santiago, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Clinical Psychology
Loyola University Chicago
Project Title: Protective Processes Among Immigrant Families: The Impact of Family Coping on Mexican-Origin Children
Santiago, C.D., Distel, L.M., Ros, A.M., Brewer, S.K., Torres, S.A., Papadakis, J.L., Fuller, A.K., & Bustos, Y. (2018). Mental health among Mexican-origin immigrant families: The roles of cumulative sociodemographic risk and immigrant-related stress. Race and Social Problems, 10, 235-247.
Abstract: The current study examined the unique effects of cumulative sociodemographic risk and immigrant-related stress on mental health symptoms among Mexican-origin immigrant parents and their school-age children. Further, this study tested whether the effects of cumulative sociodemographic risk and immigrant-related stress on child mental health were mediated by parent mental health. Participants included 104 Mexican-origin immigrant families. Families in the study had a child between the ages of 6 and 10 (Mage = 8.39; 61% female). Data were collected across three time points spaced 6 months apart. Immigrant-related stress was found to predict parent mental health, which in turn predicted child mental health. Cumulative sociodemographic risk did not predict parent or child mental health. Mental health symptoms generally decreased over time, but for children, change in mental health symptoms depended on parent mental health symptoms. Given the high levels of mental health symptoms among Mexican-origin parents and children, reducing a context of stress and promoting mental health interventions for Mexican-origin immigrants is critical. Close.
Amy L. Non, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Anthropology
University of California, San Diego
Project Title: Biological Embedding of Stress in Children of Mexican Immigrants
Non, A.L., León-Pérez G., Glass H., Kelly E., Garrison, N.A. (2017). “Stress across generations: A qualitative study of stress, coping, and caregiving among Mexican immigrant mothers.” Ethnicity and Health, 1-17.
Hispanic immigrants represent the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority within the US, justifying increased attention to identify factors that influence declining immigrant health across generations. This study investigates the range of psychosocial stress exposures and coping mechanisms of Mexican immigrant mothers, and implications for the health of their US-born children. We conducted 10 focus groups with 1st generation Mexican-born immigrant mothers (n = 32 women) in Nashville, TN, in the summer of 2014. Focus groups elicited challenges and benefits of life as an immigrant mother. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. We identified four themes that indicate how maternal stressors could impact children’s health: (1) work-family tradeoff, (2) limited freedom/mobility, (3) reduction of social networks, and (4) transmission of anxiety and fears to children. Women in our study also engage in a range of coping mechanisms, including the creation of new social networks, seeking support in religion, and seeking help from community resources. These results highlight the importance of developing new questionnaires to elicit stress exposures for Mexican immigrant mothers. Findings also suggest the value of intervention strategies and social policies that would ultimately improve maternal and child health in this marginalized population. Close.
Amanda Sullivan, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, School Psychology
University of Minnesota
Project Title: Special Needs Among Young Children of Immigrants: Prevalence, Risk and Protective Factors, and Educational Experiences
Sullivan, A. L., Houri, A., & Sadeh, S. (2016). Demography and early academic skills of students from immigrant families: The kindergarten class of 2011. School Psychology Quarterly, 31, 149-62. DOI:10.1037/spq0000137
Abstract: Children from immigrant families are one of the fastest growing and most diverse groups in America’s schools. This study provides a demographic portrait of immigrant children who entered kindergarten in 2010 and describes patterns and predictors of early educational outcomes of students from immigrant families. A nationally representative sample of 13,530 students who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the sociodemographic characteristics of this population. Regression was used to examine the relations between nativity, child characteristics, and family characteristics to reading and mathematics skills in kindergarten. Approximately 27% of kindergartners in the class of 2011 came from immigrant families. These students were more racially, linguistically, and socioeconomically diverse than students from U.S.-born parents. Educational outcomes varied by parents’ region of origin. Children’s early academic skills were significantly related to parent’s region of origin, but these relations were attenuated when child health, language, family structure, and socioeconomic status were accounted for. These results indicate the importance of considering parent nativity when examining the outcomes and needs of students from immigrant families. Because of the diversity of characteristics and outcomes of children of immigrants, researchers should consider the implications of nativity for students’ experiences and needs. Close.
2012 Young Scholars (Cohort 10)
Jennifer Keys Adair, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Curriculum and Instruction
University of Texas at Austin
Project Title: Towards a Culturally Relevant Continuity of Development for Latino Children of Immigrants in PK-3 Educational Settings
Adair, J. K., Sánchez-Suzuki Colegrove, K., & McManus, M. E. (2017). How the word gap argument negatively impacts young children in Latinx immigrants’ conceptualizations of learning. Harvard Educational Review, 3, 309-334.
Abstract: Early childhood education in grades preK – 3 continues to contribute to future school success. Discrimination, however, can still be an obstacle for many children of Latinx immigrants because they often receive less sophisticated and dynamic learning experiences than their white, native-born peers. In this article, Jennifer Keys Adair, Kiyomi Sánchez-Suzuki Colegrove, and Molly E. McManus detail how this type of educational discrimination is perpetuated by educators’ acceptance of the “word gap” discourse. Drawing on empirical work with more than two hundred superintendents, administrators, teachers, parents, and young children, they recount how caring, experienced educators explained that Latinx immigrant students could not handle dynamic, agentic learning experiences because they lacked vocabulary and how the children in those classrooms said that learning required still, obedient, and quiet bodies. Rather than blaming educators, the authors share this empirical evidence to demonstrate the harm that can come from denying young children a range of sophisticated learning experiences, especially when institutionally and publicly justified by deficit-oriented research and thinking. Using the work of Charles Mills, the authors argue that such a denial of experience to children of Latinx immigrants and other marginalized communities is discriminatory and, too often, the status quo.
Tiffany Green, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Health Behavior and Policy
Virginia Commonwealth University
Project Title: Prenatal Insurance, Prenatal Care and Early Life Health Among the Children of Black Immigrants
Green, Tiffany L. (2012). Black and Immigrant: Exploring the Effects of Ethnicity and Foreign-Born Status on Infant Health. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
Abstract: The birth experiences and prenatal behaviors of Black immigrant mothers have received relatively little attention. Literature has focused in recent years on birth outcomes among immigrant mothers compared to native-born mothers, and within-group differences in infant health among Blacks. While there are suggestive findings that infants born to Black immigrant mothers are still at a relative health disadvantage to non-Black immigrant and U.S.-born mothers, this evidence is based on studies that are limited for various reasons, whether in geographic scope and/or generalizability or because they examine a limited set of infant health outcomes.
This report compares prenatal behaviors and birth outcomes of Black immigrant mothers to those of other immigrant and U.S.-born mothers, using federal vital statistics. It finds that Black immigrant mothers are less likely to give birth to preterm or low-birth-weight infants than U.S.-born Black women, yet are more likely to experience these adverse birth outcomes than other groups of immigrant and U.S.-born women. Close.
Jessica Zacher Pandya, Ph.D
Professor, Departments of Teacher Education and Liberal Studies
California State University, Long Beach
Project Title: Multimodal Digital Composition with English Language Learners
Pandya, J.Z., Hansuvadha, N. & Pagdilao, K. (2018). Digital literacies through an intersectional lens: The case of Javier. English Teaching: Practice & Critique, 17(4), 387-399. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ETPC-11-2017-0158
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine, through an intersectional lens, how digital video composing can be an act of redistributive social justice for students with learning disabilities. The authors draw on two years’ worth of observation, interview, survey, and digital video data to present a case study of Javier (all names are pseudonyms), a Latinx English Learner with several learning disabilities. The authors worked with him, making digital videos in a general education classroom as part of a larger design-based study. The authors describe how he made meaning in various modes, across modes, and how his intersectional identities inflected his meaning-making and were visible in his video artifacts. Javier was an able digital composer, made meaning across modes and was attentive to audience. His videos offer a portrait of a child with learning disabilities navigating his complex cultural worlds. This is a single case study built to bridge multiple theoretical and disciplinary backgrounds. Javier was able to compose semiotically powerful messages with socially powerful digital tools. The authors argue that the use of such tools is a chance for redistributive social justice. Children traditionally underserved by innovations in digital making should not be left out.
Pandya, J.Z. (2018). Exploring critical digital literacy practices: Everyday video in a dual language context. New York, NY: Routledge.
Golden, N. A. & Pandya, J.Z. (2018). Understanding identity and positioning for responsive critical literacies. Language & Education. DOI: 10.1080/09500782.2018.1497648
Pandya, J.Z., Hansuvadha, N. & Pagdilao, K. (2018). Digital literacies through an intersectional lens: The case of Javier. English Teaching: Practice & Critique, 17(4), 387-399. https://doi.org/10.1108/ETPC-11-2017-0158
Pandya, J.Z. & Ávila, J. (2017). Inequitable variations: A review of research in technology, literacy studies, and special education. Literacy, 51, 12-130. 10.1111/lit.12099
Pandya, J.Z., Hansuvadha, N. & Pagdilao, K. (2016). Multimodal, digital composition for children with autism: Lessons on process, product, and assessment. Language Arts, 93, 415-428.
Pandya, J.Z., Pagdilao, K., Kim, A.E. & Marquez, E. (2015). Transnational children orchestrating competing voices in multimodal, digital autobiographies. Teachers College Record, 117(7). http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentId=17946
Pandya, J.Z. & Pagdilao, K. (2015). “It’s complicated”: Children learning about other peoples’ lives through a critical digital literacies project. Australian Journal of Language & Literacy, 38(1), 38-45. Close.
Lisseth Rojas-Flores, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Marriage & Family Therapy
Fuller Theological Seminary
Project Title: Parental Detention and Deportation and the Adjustment of Latino Citizen Children
Rojas-Flores, L., Clements, M., Hwang, K. J., & London, J. (2017). Trauma, psychological distress, and parental immigration status: Latino citizen children and the threat of deportation. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9, 352 – 361.
Abstract: The mental health impact of parental detention and deportation on citizen children is a topic of increasing concern. Forced parent – child separation and parental loss are potentially traumatic events (PTEs) with adverse effects on children’s mental health. This study examines posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychological distress among 91 Latino U.S.-born children (ages 6 to 12), living in mixed-status families with a least 1 undocumented parent at risk for detention or deportation. Multiagent (child, parent, teacher, clinician) and standardized assessments were conducted at baseline to assess for child trauma and psychological distress. Analyses indicate that PTSD symptoms as reported by parent were significantly higher for children of detained and deported parents compared to citizen children whose parents were either legal permanent residents or undocumented without prior contact with immigration enforcement. Similarly, findings revealed differences in child internalizing problems associated with parental detention and deportation as reported by parent as well as differences in overall child functioning as reported by clinician. In addition, teachers reported higher externalizing for children with more exposure to PTEs. These findings lend support to a reconsideration and revision of immigration enforcement practices to take into consideration the best interest of Latino citizen children. Trauma-informed assessments and interventions are recommended for this special population. Close.
Kevin J.A. Thomas, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Sociology, Demography & African Studies
Pennsylvania State University
Project Title: Parental Education — Occupation Mismatch Status and Child Poverty in Black Immigrant Families
Thomas, K.J.S. (2012). A Demographic Profile of Black Caribbean Immigrants in the United States. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
Abstract: Immigration from the Caribbean to the United States is a relatively recent phenomenon, beginning largely after changes to U.S. immigration law in 1965 that placed a new priority on family-based migration. This report, part of MPI’s Young Children of Black Immigrants in America research initiative, provides a demographic profile of the 1.7 million Caribbean immigrants in the United States: their geographic settlement, education and workforce characteristics, earnings, modes of entry, family structure, and more. Despite relatively low educational attainment, English-speaking Black Caribbean immigrants earn more in the U.S. labor market than Black African immigrants, who are among the best-educated immigrants in the United States. This earnings gap may be explained in part by the fact that Caribbean immigrants tend to have been in the United States longer and have greater English-language proficiency. The share of Black immigrants varies across Caribbean-origin countries: they are the vast majority of immigrants from Haiti and most other English-speaking countries in the region, 14 percent of immigrants from the Dominican Republic, and just 3 percent from Cuba. Close.
2011 Young Scholars (Cohort 9)
Maricela Correa-Chávez, Ph.D.
Research Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology
Project Title: The Cultural Organization of Learning in Mexican Immigrant Families
Eric Dearing, Ph.D.
Professor, Applied Developmental & Educational Psychology
Project Title: Student Support in High-Poverty Elementary Schools and the Achievement of English Language Learners
Dearing, E., Walsh, M. E., Sibley, E., Lee-St. John, T., Foley, C., Raczek, A. E. (2016). Can community and school-based supports improve the achievement of first-generation immigrant children attending high-poverty schools? Child Development, 87(3), 883-897.
Abstract: Using a quasi-experimental design, the effects of a student support intervention were estimated for the math and reading achievement of first-generation immigrant children (n = 667, M = 11.05 years of age) attending high-poverty, urban elementary schools. The intervention was designed to help schools identify developmental strengths and barriers to learning and, in turn, connect children to community and school supports aligned with their strengths and needs. By exploiting within-school changes in the implementation of the intervention, the present study revealed statistically and practically significant treatment effects indicating improvements in math and reading achievement at the end of elementary school. In addition, the intervention appears to considerably narrow achievement gaps between English language learners and immigrant children proficient in English. Close.
Lenna Nepomnyaschy, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, School of Social Work
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Project Title: Nonresident Father Involvement in Immigrant Families
Nepomnyaschy, L. & Donnelly, L. (2015). Father Involvement and Childhood Injuries. Journal of Marriage and Family 77(3), 628-646.
Abstract: Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children in the United States. Parental supervision is a key factor in preventing injuries, but little is known about the role of fathers. Today, one quarter of children live with a single mother, and another third live with a mother and her new partner, resulting in tremendous diversity in the amount and type of paternal involvement in children’s lives. The authors examined the effects of involvement by resident biological, nonresident biological, and resident social fathers on the risk of injury among children from birth to age 5 using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,352). They found that living with a social father and social fathers’ more frequent engagement with children increase risk of injury, but only for the youngest children. Higher levels of fathers’ cooperative parenting reduce children’s risk of injury regardless of fathers’ biological or residential status.
Nepomnyaschy, L. & Donnelly L. (2014). Child Support in Immigrant Families. Population Research and Policy Review 33(6), 817-840. Close.
Andrew Rasmussen, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology
Project Title: Child Health-Seeking Networks Among West African Refugees
Rasmussen, A., Cissé, A., Han, Y., & Roubeni, S. (2018). Migration factors in West African immigrant parents’ perceptions of their children’s neighborhood safety. American Journal of Community Psychology, 61, 321-331. DOI: 10.1002/ajcp.12230 .
Abstract: Immigrants make up large proportions of many low-income neighborhoods, but have been largely ignored in the neighborhood safety literature. We examined perceived safety’s association with migration using a six-item, child-specific measure of parents’ perceptions of school-aged (5-12 years of age) children’s safety in a sample of 93 West African immigrant parents in New York City. Aims of the study were (1) to identify pre-migration correlates (e.g., trauma in home countries), (2) to identify migration-related correlates (e.g., immigration status, time spent separated from children during migration), and (3) to identify pre-migration and migration correlates that accounted for variance after controlling for migration related correlates (e.g., neighborhood crime, parents’ psychological distress). In a linear regression model children’s safety was associated with borough of residence, greater English ability, less emotional distress, less parenting difficulty and a history of child separation. Parents’ and children’s gender, parents’ immigration status, the number of contacts in the U.S. pre-migration and pre-migration trauma were not associated with children’s safety. That child separation was positively associated with safety perceptions suggests that the processes that facilitate parent-child separation might be reconceptualized as strengths for transnational families. Integrating migration-related factors into the discussion of neighborhood safety for immigrant populations allows for more nuanced views of immigrant families’ wellbeing in host countries.
Ahmed, S. & Rasmussen, A. (in press). Changes in social status and post-migration mental health among West African immigrants. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Close.
2010 Young Scholars (Cohort 8)
Erin Todd Bronchetti, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Economics
Project Title: Public Insurance and the Health of Immigrant Children
Bronchetti, E.T. (2014). Public insurance expansions and the health of immigrant and native children. Journal of Public Economics, 120, 205-219.
Abstract: The costs of public insurance expansions are ordinarily justified by the claim that increased eligibility causes gains in insurance coverage, which translate into improved health care and health. This paper studies dramatic changes in public health insurance eligibility for immigrant and native children from 1998 to 2009 and finds that children’s nativity status is crucial to understanding the impacts of recent eligibility expansions. I document a significantly higher degree of take-up (and less crowding out of private insurance) among first- and second generation immigrant children than among children of U.S. natives. Eligibility expansions increased immigrant children’s use of preventive and ambulatory care and decreased emergency care in hospitals, while estimated effects for children of natives are negligible. My results also suggest improvements in some health measures that would be expected to respond to preventive and ambulatory care. Close.
Rachel Kimbro, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Sociology
Project Title: Safe to Play? Immigrant Children’s Neighborhood Environments and Opportunities for Physical Activity
Brewer, M. and Kimbro, R.T. (2014). Neighborhood context and immigrant children’s physical activity. Social Science & Medicine, 116, 1-9.
Abstract: Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children’s neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child’s socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child’s race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children’s physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should consider how neighborhood context differentially impacts the health and physical activity of children from various racial, ethnic and nativity backgrounds. Close.
Tama Leventhal, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Child Study and Human Development
Project Title: Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children’s Development
Leventhal, T. & Shuey, E. A. (2014). Neighborhood context and immigrant young children’s development. Developmental Psychology, 50(6), 1771-1787.
Abstract: This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children’s behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based, longitudinal study with cohorts of children first seen at birth, 3, and 6 years of age and followed over six years (N = 3,209; 37% Mexican American, 33% Black, 15% White, 9% Puerto Rican, 4% Other Latino, and 2% other race/ethnicities; 44% immigrant). Results of multilevel models suggest that the immigrant status of children’s families was a more consistent moderator of associations between neighborhood processes and children’s development than the immigrant concentration of their neighborhoods, but the nature of these associations depended on the outcome and racial/ethnic group considered.
Shuey, E. A. & Leventhal, T. (in press). Enriched early childhood experiences: Latina mothers’ perceptions and use of center-based child care. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.
Shuey, E. A. & Leventhal, T. (2018). Neighborhood context and center-based child care use: Does immigrant status matter? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 44, 124-135. Close.
Eric E. Seiber, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Public Health
The Ohio State University
Project Title: New Immigration Destination States — Is It Harder For Eligible Immigrant Children To Enroll In Medicaid?
Seiber, E.E. (2013). Which states enroll their Medicaid-eligible, citizen children with immigrant parents? Health Services Research, 48, 519-538.
Abstract: To identify which states achieve comparable enrollment rates for Medicaid-eligible, citizen children with immigrant and nonimmigrant parents. A total of 810,345 Medicaid-eligible, citizen children were drawn from the 2008-2010 American Community Survey. This study estimates a state fixed-effects probit model of uninsured status for Medicaid-eligible, citizen children. State and immigrant family interaction variables test whether citizen children in immigrant families have a higher probability of remaining uninsured compared to children in nonimmigrant families. Simulations predict the uninsured rates for Medicaid eligible children in immigrant and nonimmigrant families and rank states by the differences between the two groups. While some states have insignificant and near zero differences in predicted uninsured rates, many states have enrollment disparities reaching 20 percentage points between citizen children with immigrant and nonimmigrant parents. Many states have large differences in enrollment rates between their Medicaid-eligible, citizen children with immigrant and nonimmigrant parents. Addressing these enrollment disparities could improve the health status of citizen children in immigrant families and earn Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act bonus payments for many states.
Seiber, E.E. & Goldstein, E.V. (In Press). Disappearing Medicaid enrollment disparities for US citizen children in immigrant families: State-level trends from 2008-2015. Academic Pediatrics.
Seiber, E.E. (2014). Covering the Remaining Uninsured Children – Almost Half of Uninsured Children Live in Immigrant Families. Medical Care, 52(3), 202-207. Close.
Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Psychology
University of Pittsburgh
Project Title: Early Education and Care Experiences and School Readiness of Children of Immigrants
Votruba-Drzal, E., Levine, R.C., Collins, M. & Miller, P. (2015). Center-Based Preschool and School Readiness Skills of Children from Immigrant Families. Early Education and Development, 26(4), 549-573
Abstract: Children from immigrant families are more likely than children of native parents to start school with fewer of the academic skills that are important for long-term success, although evidence on behavioral skills is mixed. Center-based early education and care (EEC) programs, which have been linked to improvements in academic functioning in disadvantaged samples, may serve as a potent resource for children from immigrant families, but important questions remain about their benefits and drawbacks for academic and behavioral outcomes across the diverse population of children from immigrant families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N ≈ 6,550), this study examined prospective associations between center-based EEC at age 4 and school readiness skills at age 5 among children from immigrant families. The results suggest that center-based EEC is associated with heightened math, reading, and expressive language skills and also with lower parent-rated externalizing behaviors for children of immigrants in comparison to children of native parents. Results also revealed heterogeneity in associations between center-based EEC attendance and school readiness skills among children of immigrants based on parental region of origin, household language use, and the language used in EEC settings.
Johnson, A.D., Padilla, C.M. & Votruba-Drzal, E. (2016). Predictors of Public Early Care and Education Use among Children of Low-Income Immigrants. Children and Youth Services Review, 73, 24 – 36. DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.11.024
Miller, P. & Votruba-Drzal, E., & Coley, R. (2013). Predictors of early care and education type among preschool-aged children in immigrant families: The role of region of origin and characteristics of the immigrant experience. Children and Youth Services Review, 35, 1342 – 1355. DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.04.024
Miller, P., Votruba-Drzal, E., Coley, R., & Koury, A. (2014). Patterns and predictors of infant and toddler child care use in immigrant families. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 484-498. DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.11.024
Koury, A.S. & Votruba-Drzal, E. (2014). School readiness of children of immigrants: Contributions of early environments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 268 – 288. DOI:10.1037/a0034374 Close.
2009 Young Scholars (Cohort 7)
Christia Spears Brown, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Psychology
University of Kentucky
Project Title: Children Succeeding During Demographic Shifts: How Discrimination and Ethnic Identity Predict the Academic Attitudes and Performance of Latino Children in a White Community
Brown, C. S. & Chu, H. (2012). Discrimination, ethnic identity, and academic outcomes of Mexican immigrant children: The importance of school context. Child Development, 83, 1477-1485.
Abstract: This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first‐ and second‐generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools’ promotion of multiculturalism and teachers’ attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth’s attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children’s perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance.
Brown C. S. (2017). School context influences the ethnic identity development of immigrant children in middle childhood. Social Development. 26(4), 797-812.
Gilbert, L., Brown, C. S., & Mistry, R. S. (2017). Latino immigrant parents’ financial stress, depression, and academic involvement predicting child’s academic success. Psychology in the Schools, 54(9), 1202-1215.
Brown, C. S. & Lee, C. L. (2015). Impressions of immigration: Comparisons between immigrant and non-immigrant children’s immigration beliefs. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 15(1), 160-176. Close.
Joanna Dreby, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology
University at Albany, State University of New York
Project Title: The Daily Lives of Children in Mexican Immigrant Households
Dreby, J. (2012). The Burden of Deportation on Children in Mexican Immigrant Families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74, 829-45.
Abstract: In 2011, a record number of foreign‐born individuals were detained and removed from the United States. This article looks at the impact enforcement policies have had on Mexican families more broadly and children specifically. Drawing on interviews with 91 parents and 110 children in 80 households, the author suggests that, similar to the injury pyramid used by public health professionals, a deportation pyramid best depicts the burden of deportation on children. At the top of the pyramid are instances that have had the most severe consequences on children’s daily lives: families in which a deportation has led to permanent family dissolution. But enforcement policies have had the greatest impact on children at the bottom of the pyramid. Regardless of legal status or their family members’ involvement with immigration authorities, children in Mexican immigrant households describe fear about their family stability and confusion over the impact legality has on their lives.
Dreby, J., Tuñón-Pablos, E. & Griffin, L. (2019). Social class and children’s food practices in Mexican migrant households. Childhood. https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568219832640
Dreby, Joanna. (2019). Illegality in Children’s Power in Families. In Illegal Encounters the Effect of Detention and Deportation on Young People, edited by Deborah A. Boehm and Susan J. Terrio. New York: New York University Press.
Dreby, J. (2015). Everyday Illegal: When Policies Undermine Immigrant Families. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Dreby, J. (2015). U.S. Immigration Policy and Family Separation: The consequences for children’s well-being. Social Science and Medicine, 132, 245-251.
Dreby, J. & Schmalzbauer, L. (2013). The Relational Contexts of Migration: Mexican Women in New Destination Sites. Sociological Forum 28(1), 1-26.
Dreby, Joanna. (2013). The Modern Deportation Regime and Mexican Families The Indirect Consequences for Children in New Destination Communities. In Constructing Immigrant “Illegality”: Critiques, Experiences and Responses, edited by Cecilia Menjívar and Daniel Kanstroom. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Anna Gassman-Pines, Ph.D.
WLF Bass Connections Associate Professor, Sanford School of Public Policy
Project Title: Paternal Employment, Family Functioning and Young Child Well-Being: A Daily Diary Study of Mexican Immigrant Families
Gassman-Pines, A. & Skinner, A. T. (2018). Psychological acculturation and parenting behaviors in Mexican immigrant families. Journal of Family Issues, 39, 1139-1164.
Abstract: This study examined the relation between mothers’ and fathers’ psychological acculturation and parenting behaviors in two samples of Mexican-immigrant families. The middle childhood sample included 47 mothers, 38 fathers, and 46 children in families with children aged 9 to 12 years, and the early childhood sample included 185 mothers and 155 fathers in families with children aged 2 to 6 years. In both samples, compared with families in which fathers reported feeling connected only to Latino culture, fathers who reported feeling connected to both Latinos and Americans engaged in fewer aversive and withdrawn interactions and more warm interactions with children. In families where fathers reported feeling connected to both Latinos and Americans, mothers also engaged in fewer aversive and withdrawn interactions and more warm interactions with children. Results were consistent across the two samples and across different family member reports of parent – child interactions.
Gassman-Pines, A. (2015). Effects of Mexican immigrant parents’ daily workplace discrimination on child behavior and family functioning. Child Development, 86, 1175-1190. Close.
2008 Young Scholars (Cohort 6)
Danielle A. Crosby, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Human Development and Family Studies
University of North Carolina, Greensboro
Project Title: Immigrants’ Access to Public Benefits and Services Post-Reform: Missed Opportunities to Invest in Young American Children?
Steve E. Knotek, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, School Psychology
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Project Title: The Madres Para Ninos Program
Knotek, S. E., & Sánchez, M. (2017). Madres para Niños: Engaging Latina mothers as consultees to promote their children’s early elementary school achievement. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 27(1), 96-125.
Abstract: The Madres para Niños (MpN) program uses consultee-centered consultation as a vehicle to help immigrant Latino parents focus and reframe their preexisting child advocacy skills toward their children’s successful transition into elementary school in a new geographic and cultural context. This article describes the Latina mother’s experience as consultee during the MpN ten-week group consultation process. Close.
Jin Sook Lee, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Education
University of California, Santa Barbara
Project Title: Building Language Capacity: Dual Language Development in Korean and Mexican Immigrant Children
Lee. W. & Lee, J.S. (2017). Math instruction is not universal: Language specific pedagogical knowledge in Korean/English Two-Way Immersion programs. Bilingual Research Journal, 40(4), 353-371. DOI: 10.1080/15235882.2017.1380729
Abstract: Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs have demonstrated positive outcomes in students’ academic achievement in English, yet less is known about content teaching and learning in the non-English language in these programs. This study uses math instruction as a lens to identify pedagogical strategies and challenges in the teaching of math in Korean to bilingual students. Analysis of classroom interaction data shows that math instruction in Korean followed the curricular sequence and pedagogy designed for teaching math in English, leading to missed opportunities for more effective content pedagogy that utilizes language-specific characteristics inherent to the grammatical structure of Korean. This study highlights the need for not only language-specific content curricula but also language-specific pedagogical knowledge and training for TWI teachers, in particular in the non-English language of instruction.
Lee, J.S. & Corella, M. (2017). Immigrant parents’ language brokering practices: A taxonomy of interlingual and intralingual brokering In R. Weisskirch Language Brokering in Immigrant Families: Theories and Contexts, (pp. 247 – 269) NY: Routledge.
Lee, J.S., Choi, J. & Marques-Pascual, L. (2016). An analysis of communicative language functions in the speech patterns of bilingual Korean and Mexican immigrant children. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, 5(2), (In Spanish and English).
Choi, J., Lee, J.S., & Oh, J. (2016). Examining the oral language competency of children from Korean immigrant families in English-only and dual language in immersion schools. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 2, 1-20.
Corella Moreles, M. & Lee, J.S. (2015). Stories of Assessment: Spanish-English bilingual children’s agency and interactional competence in oral language. Linguistics and Education, 26, 32-45
Kim, A., Lee, J.S., & Lee, W. (2015). Examining Korean American Parent-Child Relationships through Bilingual Language Use. Journal of Family Communication, 15, 269-287.
Lee, J.S., & Jeong, E. (2013). Perspectives from a Korean-English dual language Immersion program: Insights, tensions, and hope. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 26(1), 89-107. Close.
Hanako Yoshida, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology
University of Houston
Project Title: Cognitive Consequence of Exposure to Multiple Languages
Yoshida, H., Tran, D. N., Benitez, V., & Kuwabara, M. (2011). Inhibition and Adjective Learning in Bilingual and Monolingual Children. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology, 2, 210.
Abstract: The ability to control attention — by inhibiting pre-potent, yet no longer relevant information — is an essential skill in all of human learning, and increasing evidence suggests that this ability is enhanced in language learning environments in which the learner is managing and using more than one language. One question waiting to be addressed is whether such efficient attentional control plays a role in word learning. That is, children who must manage two languages also must manage to learn two languages and the advantages of more efficient attentional control may benefit aspects of language learning within each language. This study compared bilingual and monolingual children’s performances in an artificial word-learning task and in a non-linguistic task that measures attention control. Three-year-old monolingual and bilingual children with similar vocabulary development participated in these tasks. The results replicate earlier work showing advanced attentional control among bilingual children and suggest that this better attentional control may also benefit better performance in novel adjective learning. The findings provide the first direct evidence of a relation between performances in an artificial word-learning task and in an attentional control task. We discuss this finding with respect to the general relevance of attentional control for lexical learning in all children and with respect to current views of bilingual children’s word learning.
Tran, C. D., Arredondo, M. M, & Yoshida, H. (2018). A Longitudinal Study on Early Executive Function: The Influence of Culture and Bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. Language and Cognition, 1-19.
Tran, C. D., Arredondo, M. M, & Yoshida, H. (2015). Differential effects of bilingualism and culture on early attention: A longitudinal study in the U.S., Argentina, and Vietnam. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(795), 1-15.
Bilsosn, S., Yoshida, H., Tran, C.D., Woods, E.A., & Hill, T.T. (2015) Semantic Facilitation in Bilingual First Language Acquisition. Cognition, 140, 122-34.
Bilson, S., Yoshida, H., Tran, C. D., Woods, E. A., & Hills, T. (2014). Semantic Network Structure in Bilingual and Monolingual First Language Acquisition. In P. Bello, M. Guarini, M. McShane, & B. Scassellati (Eds.), Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 200-205). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
Woods, E. A. & Yoshida, H. (2012) Effects of Learning Order and Previous Language Experience in Novel Word Learning. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
Yoshida, H., Tran, D. N., Benitez, V., & Kuwabara, M. (2010). Attentional control and early word learning. In S. Ohlsson& R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2627-2632). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
Yoshida, H. (2008) The Cognitive Consequences of Early Bilingualism. Journal of Zero to Three, 29(2), 26-30. Close.
2007 Young Scholars (Cohort 5)
Dylan Conger, Ph.D.
Professor, Public Policy and Public Administration
The George Washington University
Project Title: Time to English Proficiency Among Young English Learners
Conger, D. (2009). Testing, Time Limits, and English Learners: Does Age of Entry Affect How Quickly Students Can Learn English?” Social Science Research, 38(2), 383-396.
Abstract: Using data on young English learners (EL) who enroll in the New York City public school system, I examine how long it takes students to become minimally proficient in English and how the time to proficiency differs for students by their age of school entry. Specifically, I follow four recent entry cohorts of ELs ages 5 – 10 and use discrete-time survival analysis to model the rate at which different age groups acquire proficiency. I find that approximately half of the students become proficient within three years after school entry and that younger students learn more quickly than older students. Age of entry differences are robust to controls for observed differences between age of entry groups in their economic and demographic characteristics, their disabilities, and the schools they attend. The results lend support to the theory that older students face developmental barriers to learning new languages quickly.
Conger, D. (2010). Does Bilingual Education Interfere with English Language Acquisition?” Social Science Quarterly, 91(4), 1103-1122.
Micere Keels, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Comparative Human Development
The University of Chicago
Project Title: Children’s Developing Environments
Keels, M. (2009). Ethnic group differences in early head start parents’ parenting beliefs and practices and links to children’s early cognitive development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(4), 381-397.
Abstract: Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children’s early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and African-Americans differ significantly in their parenting beliefs and behaviors. Children also evidence significant ethnic group differences in 24-month cognitive development; these differences were fully accounted for by controlling for maternal cognitive skills, as measured by lexical knowledge. In comparison, maternal parenting behaviors were only a partial mediator of ethnic group differences in children’s cognitive development. Structural equation modeling was used to examine, within each ethnic group, the extent to which measured parenting beliefs and behaviors mediate the effect of maternal cognitive skills on children’s early cognitive development. Analyses show that the mediated path from maternal cognitive skills to child cognitive development, via “mainstream” parenting beliefs and behaviors, was stronger for European-American families than for Hispanic- and African-American families. The policy implications of increasing the schooling-related cognitive skills of low-educated parents are discussed. Close.
Sarah Enos Watamura, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology
University of Denver
Project Title: Physiologic Stress Reactivity Among Mexican-Origin Families
Miles, E.M., Dmitrieva, J., Hurwich-Reiss, E., Badanes, L., Mendoza, M.M., Perreira, K.M., & Watamura, S.E. (2018). Evidence for a Physiologic Home-School Gap in Children of Latina Immigrants. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.010
Abstract: The “Latino Health Paradox” denotes a well-established trend wherein foreign-born Latino immigrants arrive with protective health benefits which dissipate and sometimes reverse into health disparities in the second and subsequent generations. The origins and mechanism behind this paradox remain poorly understood. This study investigates whether physiological stress profiles in children of Latina immigrants (CoLIs) as compared with the children of Latina Americans (CoLAs) and of non-Latina Americans (ConLAs) might help explain how health advantages can be lost during acculturation to even result in health disparities. Because studies of ethnicity/nativity often confound poverty and ethnicity/nativity groups, we also examine differences in physiologic stress profiles by income. We focus on physiologic profile differences between ethnicity/nativity groups and by poverty category at home and in Early Childhood Education (ECE) environments. Using multi-level modeling, we compare morning and afternoon salivary cortisol levels between ECE and home environments in 256 children (32% CoLIs), while controlling for child, child care, and teacher characteristics. Results demonstrated that overall, cortisol on child care mornings was lower than on home mornings, and that among children living in poverty home and child care morning cortisol differed less than for children not living in poverty. We find that CoLIs exhibit a flatter slope on child care days than do ConLAs. We also find that among children in classrooms with lower average poverty exposure, cortisol decline across the day is steeper on child care days. Importantly, teacher language may act as a buffer to CoLIs on child care days, resulting in a steeper decline at child care. Implications for policy and practice, including supporting the availability of bilingual teachers are discussed. Close.
Qing Zhou, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology
University of California Berkeley
Project Title: The Risk and Protective Factors for Mental Health Adjustment in 1st- and 2nd-generation Chinese American Immigrant Children
Ly, J., Zhou, Q., Chu, K. & Chen, S. H. (2012). Teacher-child relationship quality and academic achievement of Chinese American children from immigrant families. Journal of School Psychology, 50, 535-553.
Abstract: This study examined the cross-sectional relations between teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) and math and reading achievement in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N= 207). Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions including closeness, conflict, and intimacy, and children completed a questionnaire measuring overall TCRQ. Standardized tests were used to assess children’s math and reading skills. Analyses were conducted to (a) test the factor structure of measures assessing TCRQ among Chinese American children, (b) examine the associations between teacher- and child-rated TCRQ and children’s academic achievement, controlling for demographic characteristics, and c) examine the potential role of child gender as a moderator in the relations between TCRQ and achievement. Results indicated that teacher-rated TCRQ Warmth was positively associated with Chinese American children’s reading achievement. Two child gender-by-TCRQ interactions were found: (a) teacher-rated TCRQ Conflict was negatively associated with girls’ (but not boys’) math achievement, and (b) child-rated Overall TCRQ was positively associated with boys’ (but not girls’) reading achievement. These findings highlight the valuable role of TCRQ in the academic success of school-aged children in immigrant families.
Chen, S. H., & Zhou, Q. (2019). Longitudinal relations of cultural orientation and emotional expressivity in Chinese American immigrant parents: A model of emotional development in adulthood. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000681
Williams, A. I., Srinivasan, M., Liu, C., Lee, P. & Zhou, Q. (2019). Why do bilinguals code-switch when emotional? Insights from immigrant parent-child interactions. Emotion. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000568
Chen, S. H., & Zhou, Q. (2018). Cultural values, social status, and immigrant parents’ emotional expressivity. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. DOI: 10.1177/0022022118817653
Ly, J. & Zhou, Q. (2018). Bidirectional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and Chinese American immigrant children’s behavior problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 7(6), 954-966.
Anicama, C., Zhou, Q. & Ly, J. (2018). Parental involvement in school and Chinese American children’s academic skills. The Journal of Educational Research, 111(5), 574-583.
Chen, S. H., Zhou, Q. & Uchikoshi, Y. (2018). Heritage language socialization in Chinese American immigrant families: Prospective links to children’s heritage language proficiency. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. DOI: 10.1080/13670050.2018.1547680
Main, A., Zhou, Q., Liew, J. C. & Sum, C. (2016). Prosocial Tendencies among Chinese American Children in Immigrant Families: Links to Cultural and Socio-demographic Factors and Psychological Adjustment. Social Development. 26(1), 165-184
Chen, S. H., Main, A., Zhou, Q., Bunge, S., Lau, N. & Chu, K. (2015). Effortful control and early academic achievement of Chinese American children in immigrant families. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30, 45-56.
Chen, S. H., Zhou, Q., Main, A., & Tao, A. (2015). Chinese American immigrant parents’ emotional expression in the family: Relations to parents’ cultural orientations and children’s regulation. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21, 619-629.
Li, X., Zhou, Q. & Hou, K. (2015). Marital conflict of Chinese American immigrant couples: A mediator of socioeconomic incorporation and children’s behavioral problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 3816-3826.
Chen, S. H., Hua, M., Zhou, Q., Tao, A., Lee, E. H., Ly, J., & Main, A. (2014). Cultural orientations and child adjustment in Chinese American immigrant families. Developmental Psychology, 50, 189-201.
Lee, E. H., Zhou, Q., Ly, J., Main, A. Tao, A. & Chen, S. H. (2014). Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children’s behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20, 202-212.
Chen, S. H., Zhou, Q., Uchikoshi, Y. & Bunge, S. (2014). Variations on the bilingual advantage? Links of Chinese and English proficiency to Chinese American children’s self-regulation. Frontiers in Psychology, Language Sciences, 5, 1-10.
Tao, A., Zhou, Q., Lau, N. & Liu, H. (2013). Chinese American immigrant mothers’ discussion of emotions with children: Relations to cultural orientations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 478-501. Close.
2006 Young Scholars (Cohort 4)
Charissa Cheah, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Psychology
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Project Title: Social Skills of Young Children of Chinese Immigrants: The Role of Sociocultural Context, Parents’ Adaptation, and Parenting
Cheah, C. S. L., Leung, C. Y. Y., Tahseen, M. & Schultz, D. (2009). Authoritative parenting among immigrant Chinese mothers of preschoolers. Journal of Family Psychology: Special Issue on Immigration, 34, 311-320. DOI: 10.1037/a0015076
Abstract:The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children’s outcomes; and c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting style, psychological well-being, perceived parenting support and stress, and children’s hyperactivity/attention. Teacher ratings of child adjustment were also obtained. Results revealed that Chinese immigrant mothers of preschoolers strongly endorsed the authoritative parenting style. Moreover, authoritative parenting predicted increased children’s behavioral/attention regulation abilities (lower hyperactivity/inattention), which then predicted decreased teacher rated child difficulties. Finally, mothers with greater psychological well-being or parenting support engaged in more authoritative parenting, but only under conditions of low parenting stress. Neither well-being nor parenting support predicted authoritative parenting when parenting hassles were high. Findings were discussed in light of cultural- and immigration-related issues facing immigrant Chinese mothers of young children.
Vu., K. T. T., Castro, M., Cheah, C. S. L. & Yu., J. (in press). Mediating and moderating processes in the association between Chinese immigrant mothers’ acculturation and parenting styles in the U.S. Asian American Journal of Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/aap0000150
Yu, J., Cheah, C. S. L., Hart, C. H., Yang, C., & Olsen, J. (2019). Longitudinal effects of maternal love withdrawal and guilt induction on Chinese American preschoolers’ bullying aggressive behavior. Development and Psychopathology. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579418001049
Vu., K. T. T., Cheah, C. S. L., Zhou, N., Leung, C. Y. Y., Li, J., & Yamamoto, Y. (2018). The socialization areas in which European American and Chinese immigrant mothers express warmth and control. Parenting: Science and Practice, 18, 262-280. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2018.1524244
Balkaya, M., Cheah, C. S. L., Yu, J., Hart, C. H., & Sun, S. (2018). The role of maternal encouragement of modesty and anxious withdrawal in the associations between Chinese American children’s temperamental shyness and social adjustment: a moderated mediation analysis. Social Development, 27, 876-890. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12295
Yu, J., Cheah, C. S. L., Hart, C. H., & Yang, C. (2018). Child inhibitory control and maternal acculturation moderate effects of maternal parenting on Chinese American children’s adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 54(6), 1111-1123. DOI: 10.1037/dev0000517
Cheah, C. S. L., Yu, J., Hart, C. H., Bayram Özdemir, S., Sun, S., Zhou, N., Sunohara, M., & Olsen, J. A. (2016). Parenting hassles mediate predictors of Chinese and Korean immigrants’ psychologically controlling parenting. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 47, 13-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.appdev.2016.09.005
Yu, J., Cheah, C. S. L., & Calvin, G. E. (2016). Acculturation, psychological adjustment, and parenting styles of Chinese immigrant mothers in the U.S. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 22, 504-516. DOI: 10.1037/cdp0000091
Yu, J., Cheah, C. S. L., Hart, C. H., Sun, S., & Olsen, J. A. (2015). Confirming the multidimensionality of psychologically controlling practices among Chinese-American mothers: Love withdrawal, guilt induction, and shaming. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 47, 13-22. DOI: 10.1177/0165025414562238
Yu, W., Cheah, C. S. L.¸& Sun, S. (2015). The moderating role of English proficiency in the association between immigrant Chinese mothers’ authoritative parenting and children’s outcomes. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 176, (4), 272-279. DOI: 10.1080/00221325.2015.1022503
Cheah, C. S. L., Li, J., Zhou, N., Yamamoto, Y., & Leung, C. Y. Y. (2015). Understanding Chinese immigrant and European American mothers’ expressions of warmth. Developmental Psychology, 51, 1802-1811. DOI: 10.1037/a0039855
Cheah, C. S. L., Leung, C. Y. Y. & Zhou, N. (2013). Understanding “tiger parenting” through the perceptions of Chinese immigrant mothers: Can Chinese and U.S. parenting coexist? Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4, 30-40. DOI:10.1037/a0031217
Tahseen, M., & Cheah, C. S. L. (2012). A multidimensional examination of the acculturation and psychological functioning of a sample of immigrant Chinese mothers in the U.S. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36(6), 430 – 439. DOI: 10.1177/0165025412448605 Close.
Jin Li, Ed.D.
Professor, Education and Human Development
Project Title: Chinese Immigrant Children’s Learning Beliefs and Related Socialization at Home
Selcuk R. Sirin, Ph.D.
Professor, Applied Psychology
New York University
Project Title: Muslim Immigrant Parents Negotiating with Schools: Implications for Children
Sirin, S. R., Ryce, P., & Mir, M. (2009). How teachers’ values affect their evaluation of children of immigrants. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(4), 463-473.
Abstract: This study examines the implications of how teachers’ views of immigrant parents predict their ratings of first-grade students’ academic competence and behavioral problems. Teachers rated 191 first-grade immigrant students attending Islamic and public schools in the Northeast United States. The results showed that when teachers perceived parents as having discrepant value differences, they rated students more negatively both in terms of academic competence and behavioral problems, even after controlling for student gender and ethnicity, parental education and parental school involvement. Surprisingly, teachers in Islamic and public schools did not differ in their perceived value differences with parents. The type of school students attend, however, moderated the effects of teachers’ perceived value differences on their academic ratings, but not on their behavioral ratings. While both Islamic and public school teachers rated students’ academic competence equally high when they perceived little or no value differences with parents, public school teachers held lower academic expectations than Islamic school teachers with increased value differences. These findings suggest a mechanism by which children from immigrant families enter a path of diminished expectations, albeit through slightly different levels in Islamic and public school settings.
Rogers-Sirin, L., Ryce, P., & Sirin, S. R. (2014). Acculturation, acculturative stress, and cultural mismatch and their influences on immigrant children and adolescents’ well-being. In R. Dimitrova, M. Bender, & F. J. R. van de Vijver (Eds.), Global perspectives on well-being in immigrant families (pp. 11-30). New York, NY: Springer.
Sirin, S. R., & Ryce, P. (2009). Cultural incongruence between teachers and families: Implications for immigrant students. In R. Takanishi & E. Grigorenko (Eds.). Immigration, diversity, and education (pp. 151-169). London, UK: Routledge/Taylor.
Sirin, S. R. & Fine, M. (2008). Muslim American youth: Understanding hyphenated identities through multiple methods. New York, NY: New York University Press.
2005 Young Scholars (Cohort 3)
Ariel Kalil, Ph.D.
Professor, Public Policy
University of Chicago
Project Title: Parental Labor Market Experiences, Investments in Children, and the Educational, Behavioral, and Physical Health Status of Immigrant Children
Yuuko Uchikoshi, Ed.D.
University of California, Davis
Project Title: Early Literacy Study of Immigrant Children
Uchikoshi, Y. & Marinova-Todd, S. (2012). Vocabulary and early literacy skills of Cantonese-speaking English language learners in the U.S. and Canada. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25(9), 2107-2129.
Abstract: This study describes the language proficiency and early literacy skills of Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in kindergarten. A total of 113 Cantonese-speaking kindergarteners in Canada and the United States, composed of three subsamples from three different locations participated in this study. Results showed that on average, the Cantonese-speaking ELLs in this study performed below average on vocabulary measures when compared with monolingual norms, but at or above average on English letter-word identification and phonological awareness (PA) tasks. Cluster analysis was used to identify two new groups of children based on their language proficiency in each language: English dominant and Cantonese dominant. There were no differences on PA in English and Cantonese between the cluster groups. However, the English dominant group performed significantly higher on English vocabulary and English decoding than the Cantonese dominant group. At the same time, the Cantonese dominant group performed significantly higher on Cantonese vocabulary and Cantonese word reading than the English dominant group. Finally, multiple regression analysis revealed that there was cross-language facilitation of PA on Chinese character recognition. Educational implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Uchikoshi, Y. (in press). Phonological awareness trajectories: Young Spanish-English and Cantonese-English bilinguals. Language Learning.
Lucero, A. & Uchikoshi, Y. (2019). Narrative Assessment with 1st Grade Spanish-English Emergent Bilinguals: Spontaneous versus Retell Conditions. Narrative Inquiry.
Uchikoshi, Y. & Marinova-Todd, S.H. (2019). The effect of dual language proficiency on literacy development in emergent bilinguals in the U.S. and Canada. In Uccelli, P., Rowe, M., Lieven, E., & Gover, V. Learning through Language: Towards an Educationally Informed Theory of Language Learning. Cambridge University Press.
Uchikoshi, Y., Yang, L, & Liu, S. (2017). Role of narrative skills on reading comprehension: Spanish-English and Cantonese-English Dual Language Learners. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal. http://rdcu.be/xZfh
Uchikoshi, Y., Yang, L., Lohr, B., & Leung, G. (2016). Role of oral proficiency on reading comprehension: Within-language and cross-language relationships. Literacy Research: Theory, Method, and Practice.
Uchikoshi, Y. (2014). Development of vocabulary in Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English Language Learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(1), 119-153.
Uchikoshi, Y. (2013). Predictors of English reading comprehension: Cantonese-speaking English language learners in the U.S. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26(6), 913-939.
Leung, G. & Uchikoshi, Y. (2012). Relationships among language ideologies, family language policies, and children’s language achievement: A look at Cantonese-English bilinguals in the U.S. Bilingual Research Journal.
Marinova-Todd, S. & Uchikoshi, Y. (2010). The role of L1 on the oral language development in English: The case of Chinese and Spanish. In A.Y. Durgunoglu & C. Goldenberg (Eds.). Language and Literacy Development in Bilingual Settings. NY: Guilford.
Reyes, I. & Uchikoshi, Y. (2009). Emergent literacy in immigrant children: Home and school environment interface. In E. Grigorenko and R.Takanishi (Eds.). Immigration, Diversity, and Education. Routledge: Taylor and Francis Group. Close.
Jennifer Van Hook, Ph.D.
Roy C. Buck Professor of Sociology and Demography
Pennsylvania State University
Project Title: Obesity Among Young Children of Immigrants
Van Hook, J. & Baker, E. (2010). Big boys and little girls: Gender, acculturation, and weight among young children of immigrants. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(2), 200-214.
Abstract: Previous research fails to find a consistent association between obesity and acculturation for children. We theorize that social isolation shelters children of immigrants from the U.S. “obesiogenic” environment, but this protective effect is offset by immigrant parents’ limited capacity to identify and manage this health risk in the United States. We further theorize that these factors affect boys more than girls. We use data from over 20,000 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort and find that boys whose parents were raised outside the United States weighed more and gained weight faster than any other group. However, within this group, sons of low English-proficient parents gained weight more slowly than sons of English-proficient parents. The results thus suggest that two dimensions of low acculturation — foreign place of socialization and social isolation — affect children’s weight gain in opposite directions and are more important for boys than girls.
2004 Young Scholars (Cohort 2)
Neeraj Kaushal, Ph.D.
Professor of Social Policy
Project Title: Welfare Reform and Health of Children in Immigrant Families
Kaushal, N. & Robert K. (2005). Welfare Reform and Health Insurance of Immigrants. Health Services Research, 40(3), 697-722.
Abstract: To investigate the effect of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) on the health insurance coverage of foreign- and U.S.-born families headed by low-educated women. Secondary data from the March series of the Current Population Surveys for 1994 – 2001. Multivariate regression methods and a pre- and post-test with comparison group research design (difference-in-differences) are used to estimate the effect of welfare reform on the health insurance coverage of low-educated, foreign- and U.S.-born unmarried women and their children. Heterogenous responses by states to create substitute Temporary Aid to Needy Families or Medicaid programs for newly arrived immigrants are used to investigate whether the estimated effect of PRWORA on newly arrived immigrants is related to the actual provisions of the law, or the result of fears engendered by the law. PRWORA increased the proportion of uninsured among low-educated, foreign-born, unmarried women by 9.9 – 10.7 percentage points. In contrast, the effect of PRWORA on the health insurance coverage of similar U.S.-born women is negligible. PRWORA also increased the proportion of uninsured among foreign-born children living with low-educated, single mothers by 13.5 percentage points. Again, the policy had little effect on the health insurance coverage of the children of U.S.-born, low-educated single mothers. There is some evidence that the fear and uncertainty engendered by the law had an effect on immigrant health insurance coverage. This research demonstrates that PRWORA adversely affected the health insurance of low-educated, unmarried, immigrant women and their children. In the case of unmarried women, it may be partly because the jobs that they obtained in response to PRWORA were less likely to provide health insurance. The research also suggests that PRWORA may have engendered fear among immigrants and dampened their enrollment in safety net programs. Close.
Iliana Reyes, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Early Childhood, Education and Immigration Studies; Center for Latin American Studies
University of Arizona
Project Title: Emergent Literacy and Immigrant Children: Using Parent-Child Interactions to Foster Literacy in Spanish-Speaking Children
Reyes, I. (2006). Exploring connections between emergent biliteracy and bilingualism. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 6(3), 267-292.
Abstract: This article explores the ways in which young emergent bilingual children begin to develop literacy in two languages, Spanish and English. Three case studies of four-year-old Mexican-background children and their families living in southern Arizona are presented from a qualitative socio-psycholinguistic perspective. The children’s home and classroom interactions were observed and analyzed for patterns of language and literacy in their two languages. The findings show that these emergent bilinguals learn and develop their own ‘theories’ and ‘concepts’ about language and literacy from an early age. The conversational participants and interlocutors were among the factors that directly influenced children’s development of language and literacy in Spanish and English. In addition, context was another important factor that contributed positively to the development of their emergent bilingualism and biliteracy. Finally, I discuss the language-literacy strategies that these Mexican-background children use as they try to make sense of their metalinguistic and biliteracy knowledge, while developing additional literacy tools and resources in both Spanish and English.
Reyes, I., & Uchikoshi, Y. (2010). Families and Young Immigrant Children: Learning and Understanding their Home and School Literacy Experiences. In R. Takanishi & Grigorenko, E. (Eds.), Immigration, Diversity, and Education (pp. 259-275). New York: Routledge.
Reyes, I. (2010). Learning from Young Bilingual Children’s explorations of Language and Literacy at Home and School. In Defying Convention, Inventing the Future in Literacy Research and Practice: Essays in Tribute of Ken and Yetta Goodman (pp. 144-159). New York: Routledge.
Reyes, I., & Azuara, P. (2008). Emergent biliteracy in young Mexican immigrant children. Reading Research Quarterly, 43(4), 374-398.
Reyes, I., Alexandra, D., & Azuara, P. (2007). Home literacy practices in Mexican households. Cultura y Educación, 19(4), 463-474. Close.
2003 Young Scholars (Cohort 1)
Robert L. Crosnoe, Ph.D.
Professor and Chair, Sociology
University of Texas at Austin
Project Title: The Developmental Trajectories of Immigrant Children: Education, Health, Parenting, and School Context
Crosnoe, R. (2006). Health and the education of children from racial/ethnic minority and immigrant families. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47, 77-93.
Abstract: Building on a conceptual model of the transition to elementary school, this study explored the role of health in the early cognitive achievement of children from various racial/ethnic minority and immigrant families by applying multilevel modeling to data from a nationally representative sample of American kindergarteners. Whites tended to have the best physical health before transitioning to first grade. Children from immigrant Latino/a and Asian families had the worst physical health but the best mental health. Compared to white children from native families, these health differentials partially explained the lower math achievement and achievement growth of black children (whether from native or immigrant families) in first grade as well as the lower math achievement of children from Latino/a immigrant families and the lower achievement growth of children from Asian immigrant families during this period.
Crosnoe, Robert. (2006). Mexican Roots, American Schools: Helping Mexican Immigrant Children Succeed. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Crosnoe, R. & Wildsmith, E. (2011). Non-Marital Fertility, Family Structure, and the School Readiness of Young Children from Different Race/Ethnic Groups. Applied Developmental Science, 15, 156-170.
Crosnoe, R. & Lopez-Turley, R. (2011). The K-12 Educational Outcomes of Immigrant Youth. Future of Children, 21, 129-152.
Crosnoe, R. & Kalil, A. (2010). Educational Progress and Parenting among Mexican Immigrant Mothers of Young Children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 976-989.
Crosnoe, R.. (2009). Family-School Connections and the Transitions of Low-Income Youth and English Language Learners from Middle School into High School. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1061-1076.
Crosnoe, R. (2007). Early Child Care and the School Readiness of Children from Mexican Immigrant Families. International Migration Review, 41, 152-181.
Crosnoe, R. (2006). Health and the Education of Children from Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Families. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47,77-93.
Crosnoe, R. (2005). Double Disadvantage or Signs of Resilience: The Elementary School Contexts of Children from Mexican Immigrant Families. American Educational Research Journal, 42, 269-303.
Crosnoe, R.. (2011). Diversity in the Immigrant Paradox in the Mexican-Origin Population. In C. Garcia-Coll and A. Marks (Eds). The Immigrant Paradox in Children and Adolescents: Is Becoming an American a Developmental Risk? (pp. 61-76). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Crosnoe, R.. (2010). Two Generation Strategies and Involving Immigrant Parents in Children’s Education. Policy Brief for Urban Institute.
Kalil, A. & Crosnoe, C. (2009). Two Generations of Educational Progress in Latin American Immigrant Families in the U.S: A Conceptual Framework for a New Policy Context. In R. Takanishi & E. Grigorenko (Eds.). Immigration, diversity, and education (pp. 188-204). London, UK: Routledge/Taylor.
Elena L. Grigorenko, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology, University of Houston
Professor of Molecular and Human Genetics and Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine
Project Title: Risk and Protective Factors for the Development of Socio-emotional and Learning Difficulties in Children Adopted from Russia: A Multi-Group Comparison
Grigorenko, E. L., & Takanishi, R. (Eds.). (2009) Immigration, diversity, and education. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Books.
Abstract: This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By accessibly presenting research findings and policy considerations in the field, this collection lays the foundation for changes in child and youth policies associated with the shifting ethnic, cultural, and linguistic profile of the U.S. population.
Naumova, O. Yu., Dozier, M., Dobrynin, P. V., Grigorev, K., Wallin, A., Jeltova, I., Lee, M., Raefski, A., Grigorenko, E. L. (2018). Developmental dynamics of the epigenome: a longitudinal study of three toddlers. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 66, 125-131. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2017.12.006
Rakhlin, N., Hein, S., Doyle, N., Hart, L., Koposov, R., Macomber, D., Ruchkin, V., Strelina, A., Tan, M., Grigorenko, E. L. (2018). Sources of heterogeneity in developmental outcomes of children with past and current experiences of institutionalization in Russia: a four-group comparison. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87, 242-255. doi:10.1037/ort0000146
Hein, S., Tan, M., Rakhlin, N., Doyle, N., Hart, L., Macomber, D., Ruchkin, V., Grigorenko, E. L. (2017). Psychological and sociocultural adaptation of children adopted from Russia and their associations with pre-adoption risk factors and parenting. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 2669 – 2680, doi:10.1007/s10826-017-0782-9
Rakhlin, N., Hein, S., Doyle, N., Hart, L., Koposov, R., Macomber, D., Ruchkin, V., Strelina, A., Tan, M., Grigorenko, E. L. (2017). Sources of heterogeneity in developmental outcomes of children with past and current experiences of institutionalization in Russia: a four-group comparison. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87, 242-255. doi:10.1037/ort0000146
Rakhlin, N., Hein, S., Doyle, N., Hart, L., Macomber, D., Ruchkin, V., Tan, M., Grigorenko, E. (2015). Language development in internationally adopted children: Adverse early experiences outweigh the age of acquisition effect. Journal of Communication Disorders, 57, 66 – 80. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2015.08.003
Naumova, O., Lee, M., Koposov, R., Szyf, M., Dozier, M., Grigorenko, E. L. (2012). Differential patterns of whole-genome DNA methylation in institutionalized children and children raised by their biological parents. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 143-155. PMID: 22123582, PMCID: PMC3470853.
Grigorenko, E. L. (Ed.). (2012). U.S. immigration and education: Cultural and policy issues across the lifespan. New York, NY: Springer. Close.
Wen-Jui Han, Ph.D.
Professor, Silver School of Social Work
New York University
Project Title: Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Outcomes of Children of Immigrants
Han, W-J. (2006). Academic achievements of children in immigrant families. Educational Research and Reviews, 1(8), 286-318.
Abstract: Utilizing data on approximately 16,000 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort and a rich set of mediating factors on 16 immigrant groups, this paper examined the associations between children’s immigrant generation status and their academic performance. The changes in academic achievements during kindergarten and first-grade were also examined to explore the varying learning paces exhibited by children from different countries of origin. Results indicate that, compared to third and later generation non-Hispanic white children, children of Latin American regions tended to have lower reading and math scores, while children of Asian regions tended to have higher reading and math scores. In addition, although children of immigrants may have either higher (e.g., children from East Asia) or lower scores (e.g., children from Mexico) by first-grade compared to third and later generation non-Hispanic white children, the former generally learned skills at faster paces, thus widening (e.g., for children from East Asia) or narrowing (e.g., for children from Mexico) academic achievement gaps. Child and family characteristics accounted for a large share of the differences in children’s academic achievements. Home, school, and neighborhood environments may also matter but to a lesser extent. Research implications are discussed.
Han, W-J. (2012). Bilingualism and academic achievement. Child Development, 83(1), 300-321. Received the 2014 Society for Social Work and Research Excellence in Research Award.
Han, W-J. (2012). Bilingualism and academic achievement: Does generation status make a difference? In C. Garcia Coll & A. Marks (Eds.), The Immigrant Paradox in Children and Adolescents: Is Becoming American a Developmental Risk? (pp. 161-184). New York, NY: American Psychological Association.
Han, W-J. (2010). Bilingualism and Socioemotional Well-Being. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(5), 720-731.
Han, W-J. & Huang, C-C. (2010). The Forgotten Treasure: Bilingualism and Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Health. American Journal of Public Health, 100(5), 831-838.
Han, W-J. & Bridglall, B. L. (2009). Assessing school supports for ELL students using ECLS-K. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 445-462.
Han, W-J. (2008). The academic trajectories of children of immigrants and their school environments. Developmental Psychology, 44(6), 1572-1590. Close.
Krista Perreira, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Social Medicine
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Project Title: Immigrants, Parenting, and Infant/Toddler Well-Being
Perreira, K. M., & Cortes, K. E. (2006). Race/Ethnicity and Nativity Differences in Alcohol and Tobacco Use During Pregnancy. American Journal of Public Health, 96(6), 1629-1636.
Abstract: We examined race/ethnicity and nativity correlates of prenatal substance use. Using data on a nationally representative cohort of pregnant women in US cities (N=4185), we evaluated the relative importance of socioeconomic status, paternal health behaviors, social support, and maternal stress and health history in explaining variations in prenatal substance use by race/ethnicity and nativity. Maternal stress and health history appeared to fully explain differences in alcohol use by nativity, but these and other factors could not explain differences in prenatal smoking. For all races/ethnicities, paternal health behaviors were most strongly associated with maternal substance use. Except among Black women, socioeconomic background bore little relation to prenatal substance use after adjustment for more proximal risk factors (e.g., paternal and maternal health behaviors). Social support was most protective among Hispanic women. Foreign-born immigrant women are at equal risk of prenatal alcohol use compared with similarly situated US-born women and should not be overlooked in the design of interventions for at-risk women. Furthermore, the inclusion of fathers and the development of social support structures for at-risk women can strengthen interventions. Close.