Phillips, Gormley, and Lowenstein compare and contrast characteristics of Tulsa UPK classrooms to a sample of state-funded PK classrooms in seven states in Classroom Quality and Time Allocation in Tulsa’s Early Childhood Programs. Head Start programs in Tulsa were also compared to Head Start programs nationwide. Across the board, Tulsa programs for 4-year-olds are of higher quality than those across the nation.
The authors suggest three reasons why Tulsa programs achieve higher outcomes for children, beginning with governance--all programs are governed by the state department of education. Second, the school district applies strict standards for teacher qualifications; and lastly, the PK programs have relatively small class sizes.